Refraint vs. Restraint:

Delirium, Immobility, PICS and the Impact of Patient Restraints


Refraint is a new vision of patient restraint. This white paper reviews the history of patient restraints and argues for using the least restraint necessary when providing critical care. Current PADIS Guidelines and medical studies on delirium and immobilization are discussed.


Marie Pavini, MD

Founder of Healthy Design and Creator of Exersides™

Dr. Pavini is a critical care physician practicing in Vermont. She launched Healthy Design in 2015 to develop products that improve the ICU  experience for patients and staff. Exersides™ is the flagship product of Healthy Design.